The Differences between Moving Magnet and Moving Coil Voice Coil Motors


Moving Magnet and Moving Coil Voice Coil Motors: A Comparative Study


Voice coil motors are widely used in various industries and applications, including robotics, audio equipment, and aerospace technology. There are two main types of voice coil motors: moving magnet (MM) and moving coil (MC). Both types have distinct characteristics and offer unique advantages and disadvantages. This article aims to explore the differences between MM and MC voice coil motors, highlighting their designs, operation principles, applications, and performance characteristics.

Design and Operation Principles

1. Moving Magnet (MM) Voice Coil Motors

MM voice coil motors feature a stationary coil and a permanent magnet that moves. The coil is usually mounted on a stationary frame, attached to the housing of the motor. Within the coil, a current is passed, which produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field interacts with the fixed permanent magnet, causing it to move and create mechanical motion. The direction and intensity of the magnetic field determine the motion and speed of the motor's actuator.

2. Moving Coil (MC) Voice Coil Motors

In contrast to MM motors, MC voice coil motors consist of a moving coil and a stationary permanent magnet. The coil is directly attached to the actuator and moves within the magnetic field generated by the stationary magnet. When an electric current flows through the coil, it creates electromagnetic forces that interact with the magnetic field, resulting in linear or rotational motion of the actuator.


3. MM Voice Coil Motors Applications

MM voice coil motors find extensive use in audio equipment such as headphones, loudspeakers, and microphones. Their precise control and responsiveness make them ideal for delivering accurate and high-fidelity sound reproduction. Additionally, MM voice coil motors are utilized in disk drives, optical equipment, and autofocus systems, where a small and lightweight motor is required.

4. MC Voice Coil Motors Applications

MC voice coil motors are commonly employed in applications that demand high precision and accuracy, such as in robotics, medical devices, and aerospace technology. These motors offer excellent control, low hysteresis, and the ability to achieve high speeds and accelerations. Their high force-to-mass ratio and precise positioning capabilities make them suitable for applications that require repetitive positioning and movement.

Performance Characteristics

5. Performance Characteristics of MM Voice Coil Motors

MM voice coil motors exhibit several performance characteristics that make them advantageous for specific applications. They offer relatively high force output and can generate a substantial amount of power, depending on their size. MM motors also tend to have lower manufacturing costs compared to MC motors, making them a more economical option for certain applications. However, they generally have lower efficiency due to energy losses caused by heat dissipation.

6. Performance Characteristics of MC Voice Coil Motors

MC voice coil motors provide superior performance in terms of precision, accuracy, and responsiveness. They offer higher efficiency, as the electrical energy is directly converted into mechanical motion. Furthermore, MC motors have lower hysteresis and friction, which results in improved linearity and reduced wear and tear on the motor. However, they are typically more expensive to manufacture due to the complexity of their design.


In conclusion, both moving magnet (MM) and moving coil (MC) voice coil motors play crucial roles in various industries and applications. The choice between MM and MC motors depends on the specific requirements of the application and the desired performance characteristics. MM voice coil motors are cost-effective and suitable for applications where high force output is needed. On the other hand, MC voice coil motors excel in applications that demand precise control, high accuracy, and low hysteresis. Understanding the differences between these two types of voice coil motors enables engineers and designers to select the most appropriate option for their specific needs, ensuring optimal performance and efficiency.


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