How To Solve The Problem Of Vibration And Out-Of-Step Of Stepper Motors

Do you want to know how to solve the problem of vibration and out-of-step stepper motors? Smooth Motor can help you. Read our guide for preventative measures and solutions. 

January 11, 2024

Stepper motors are a great option to consider. Nevertheless, step losses and vibration are two key issues. In the majority of cases, step losses may be avoided or fixed. And vibrations have the potential to disturb.

The operation of stepper motors is an open loop. When stepping motors don't work as expected, the culprit is either the motor itself or the driving electronics. Important decisions include motor selection and controller choice. Other things cause step losses, however.

Stepper Motors

Strategies To Reduce Vibrations

Cleaning Damper

Putting a clean damper on the motor's rear shaft is a simple way to lessen vibration.  A clean damper is a plastic container with a silicon gel-filled inertia body that is hermetically sealed. The silicon gel and additional inertia work together to dampen vibrations and keep them from traveling.

High Resolution

When you buy a stepper motor from some brands, you may see that the rotor has 100 teeth instead of 50. Since the motor now only travels a smaller distance with each step, the vibration amplitude is reduced, and the full-step resolution is doubled, thanks to the greater percentage of teeth.  This results in a 0.9° motor for a typical 0.72° 5-stage stepper motor and a 0.36° motor for a typical 1.8° 2-phase motor.

Motor Size Analysis

When measuring a motor, it's important to locate its "sweet spot" where it runs most efficiently.  A motor's maximum specs should not be used to determine its size.  It is highly discouraged, for instance, to size a stepper motor precisely at the specifications shown by the speed-torque curve, as this indicates the point at which the motor would stall.  It's also crucial to avoid oversizing the motor since doing so might lead to increased vibration caused by excessive torque.  Reducing the motor current will lessen the excessive torque that results from oversizing a stepper motor.


A sometimes disregarded property of objects is their inertia, characterized as their resistance to a change in speed. Avoid exceeding the suggested "inertia ratio" when choosing a gear ratio.  Dividing the total load inertia by the rotor inertia is the formula for the inertia ratio of an ungeared stepper motor.

stepper motors

Strategies To Solve Out Of Step

The versatility and accuracy of stepper motors make them a popular option for many uses. Step losses, however, are a typical problem with stepper motors and may drastically diminish their efficiency. Regarding stepper motors, the Faulhaber tutorial is your best bet for avoiding and fixing step losses.

Selection Precautions

Before you buy a stepper motor, figure out how fast and how much torque your application requires. Your choice should reflect your preparedness for the worst-case situation. A 30% design margin is recommended. The motor's torque versus speed curve that is provided allows for the calculation of this margin. This additional buffer ensures reliable performance under various situations.

The phase current of a stepper motor is not automatically adjusted to compensate for variations in load, unlike that of a DC motor. This is why it's important to ensure the engine can't stall due to outside forces. Thorough preparation and evaluation are necessary for this.

The Error of External Commutation

As a rule, stepper motors tend to lose steps in fours. The commutation sequence is probably at the root of the problem if the amount of steps wasted is varied. When electricity is suddenly turned off, it might cause problems and cause counter status to be lost. Upon power restoration, this might lead to uncontrolled steps.

To avoid this, note the commutation sequence before turning off the power and load it again when you turn it back on. This method is useful for keeping the right order of steps.

Other Factors

Motors may experience step loss when energy is returned to them via gearheads or other systems that cause them to spin in reverse. Additional causes of step losses include changes in the load due to wear or environmental variables.

To avoid these problems, set up the commutation to preserve the motor current values and polarities before turning it off. Lubricants well-suited to the motor's needs may also mitigate the effects of temperature fluctuations on the engine's efficiency.

Smooth Hybrid Stepper Motors

Bottom Line

We can safely say that it is inevitable to solve and prevent all issues in stepper motors. However, what we can do is try our best to maintain them and take preventive measures. As mentioned above, motor selection is important in determining whether you will face extreme problems. This is where Smooth Motor comes in.


Smooth Motor is the best option for your toughest applications, and we have unmatched accuracy and dependability. Even in extreme environments, our motors are engineered to provide precise and effortless control. Enhanced stall avoidance and a strong design margin are two of Smooth Motors' outstanding characteristics that set them apart from the competition. Providing a smooth experience that boosts productivity and decreases downtime, our state-of-the-art stepper motors are efficient and long-lasting. Invest in quality and innovation with Smooth Motors, and your company will reap the rewards.

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