The Working Principle And Functional Characteristics Of Stepper Motors

March 28, 2024

A stepper motor is a motor that can accurately rotate in a preset number of steps and direction. Electrical signals are used to control the rotation of the motor. Each electrical pulse signal causes the motor to rotate at a certain angle, which is called stepping. There are two types of stepper motors: linear stepper motors and rotary stepper motors, which are commonly used in various automation equipment, such as printers, CNC machine tools, robots, automatic valves, etc.


How stepper motors work

A stepper motor is an electric motor that is driven step by step by turning magnets inside the motor. Stepper motors rotate through adsorption. They are usually used in fields with high precision requirements due to their advantages of precise rotation and high positioning accuracy.


Stepper motors usually consist of a drive circuit and a positioning system. The working principle of the drive circuit is to convert signals into current pulses to control the rotation of the stepper motor. The positioning system accurately controls the position of the stepper motor through an encoder.


Inside the stepper motor, there are multiple coaxial electromagnetic rods of different sizes forming different numbers of electromagnetic poles. Each time the power is turned on or off, the different electromagnetic rods produce adsorption force, causing them to continuously produce steps. effect, thereby achieving motor rotation.


Functional characteristics of stepper motors

The functional characteristics of stepper motors are as follows:

1. High-precision motion: Stepper motors can perform precise positioning movements and are widely used in applications that require high-precision control.

2. No feedback control: Stepper motors can move without closed-loop feedback control, and the control is simple and does not require additional encoders.

3. Low noise and low vibration: Because stepper motors move step by step, they produce very low noise and vibration, making them suitable for applications with higher noise and vibration requirements.

4. High reliability and long life: The stepper motor has a simple structure and mechanical mechanism, requires little maintenance, and has extremely high reliability and lifespan.

5. Simple control and drive circuit: The control and drive circuit of the stepper motor is very simple. It only needs to provide appropriate pulse signals to control the motor rotation.

6. High torque output: Stepper motors can provide high torque output and are suitable for applications requiring high torque motion.


Precautions for using stepper motors

1. Driving mode selection: Generally speaking, stepper motors have two modes: full-step drive and half-step drive. When choosing a driving method, you need to make a selection based on specific needs.

2. Wiring method selection: There are two wiring methods for stepper motors: two-phase and four-phase. Two-phase stepper motors only need two wires to drive, while four-phase stepper motors require four wires to drive.

3. Drive current selection: The drive current of the stepper motor must match the rated current of the driver, otherwise it will easily cause the motor to burn out.

4. Acceleration selection: When controlling the rotation of the stepper motor, it is necessary to control the acceleration of the stepper motor. Excessive acceleration can easily cause the motor to lose control.

5. Stopping method selection: The stopping methods of stepper motors generally include natural stopping and forced stopping, which need to be selected according to actual needs.

6. Temperature control: Stepper motors are easy to burn out at high temperatures, so you need to pay attention to controlling the temperature.

7. Environmental conditions: Stepper motors should not be used in humid, corrosive gas, or explosive environments.

8. Processing size: When installing the stepper motor, you need to pay attention to matching the overall dimensions and not to make it excessive or too small.

Smooth is a professional stepper motors supplier and manufacturer in China, with more than 10 years of manufacturing experience, welcome to contact us!

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